Structural system of the building

Structural system of the building

The buildings consist of structures, which, by their functions are divided into supporting, protecting and combinations that perform simultaneously supporting and protecting functions (such as walls, covering the building envelope). Also includes building utilities and functional software.


Bearing design provides strength, rigidity and stability of the building as a whole and its parts under the stress of the weight of people, furniture, equipment, wind, seismic, snow, and other temporary loads. Protecting designs shared spaces in the building, the internal volume of the building is separated from the external environment. The main purpose of building envelopes – providing thermal insulation, sound insulation, fire resistance, etc. But at the same time the building envelope should have the necessary strength and rigidity. Therefore, all the building envelope are both carriers, but not vice versa.
Bearing structures are divided into single, span and combined, are both supporting and passing the structure (eg membrane covering the building). Supporting structural engineering to understand and reproduce the ground forces of its own weight, based on them and the rest of spans based on their designs. To support structures are the foundations of buildings, columns, walls, which are based on overlapping or covering of the building, and others. Span structure designed to cut off the premises, or openings in the walls. Of spans to include beams, lintels, trusses, floor slabs and roofs, arches, vaults, domes, shells, landings and flights, balconies, etc.

Structural system of the building

Structural system is a set of interrelated constructs that provide strength, rigidity and stability of the building. Along with the term “structural system” in the technical literature in the same sense, the term “constructive scheme.” This term is used in two senses: to refer to graphic bearing structures and arrangements of supporting structures (eg, longitudinal, transverse construction diagram). It is therefore preferable to use the first of these terms.
Structural system of the building is determined by the type of support and of spans.
The supporting structure of the building, except for the self-weight loads and directly attached to them temporary loads (eg wind), perceive and transmit the load from the ground based on these structures, process equipment and architectural details. For buildings using four types of support structures: walls, frames, trunks (kernel hardness) and shell (pipe), which correspond to the wall, frame, tube and shell design systems. Structural system with the vertical load-bearing structures of two or more types called combination or derivative. Type of support structures can vary both in terms of the building, and in its height, for example, the frame on the lower floors and load-bearing walls – in the upper floors.
Span structures used for covering interior and exterior of the building. Main types of spans: beams, girders, arches, plates, arches, domes, shell.
Rise buildings, typically have hard floors in its own plane. Design features of overlaps do not significantly affect the characteristics of the joint space support system of the building. Therefore the design of these buildings is mainly determined by the type of support bearing structures.

Classification of structural systems of buildings

Classification scheme of structural systems of multi-storey buildings: I – frame, II – Wall, III – receiver (kernel), IV – shell (pipe), I + II – frame-wall, I + III – frame-receiver, I + IV – frame -shell, II + III – receiver-wall, II + IV – shell-wall, III + IV – receiver-shell (tube in tube).

Basic design of the system (in the classification scheme in a green circle):
I. Frame

  • rack (post-and-beam, post and arch, post-and-dome), the stability of which is provided by its own weight structures
  • Svjaseva with rackmount frame, sustainably diaphragm of planar elements, or diagonally bonds
  • frame, stability is ensured by rigid joints for columns and beams,
  • frame-Svjaseva (with diaphragm and frame structure with rigid inclusions that form the farm, with horizontal belts hardness).

II. Wall

  • cross-wall,
  • ploskostenovye – a longitudinal, cross, with radial walls
  • with exterior bearing walls without internal support structures (walls and other vertical supports).

III. Barrel (kernel)

  • with cantilever beams,
  • etazherochnye,
  • with floors, suspended from the horizontal gratings,
  • pavements.
  • IV. Shell (pipe)
  • Lattice frame or diagonally shell
  • multisectional latticed shell
  • with makrofermami.
Structural systems of tall buildings

Classification scheme of structural systems of multi-storey buildings: I – frame, II – Wall, III – receiver (kernel), IV – shell (pipe), I + II – frame-wall, I + III – frame-receiver, I + IV – frame -shell, II + III – receiver-wall, II + IV – shell-wall, III + IV – receiver-shell (tube in tube).

Derivative design systems (in the classification scheme in the yellow circle):

  • I + II – Frame-wall (with an incomplete skeleton of the building.)
  • I + III – Frame and Barrel (a combination of frame or rack frame with internal trunk).
  • II + III – receiver-wall.
  • I + IV – shell-frame (a combination of external and internal lattice shell rack frame).
  • III + IV – shell-barrel (a combination of external and internal lattice shell trunk).
  • II + IV – shell-wall (a combination of external and internal lattice shell bearing walls).

By construction

  • Prefabricated building – erected from prefabricated in a factory.
  • or construction site) structural elements.
  • Precast-monolithic – erected prefabricated and monolithic concrete to be placed directly into the building.
  • Monolithic – the main structure (floors, walls, framing members) of reinforced concrete.
  • From small elements (bricks, and concrete blocks, etc.), stacked manually or building robots.

By material bearing structures

  • of wood;
  • stone;
  • of plastics;
  • of concrete;
  • of concrete;
  • of metal;
  • of light metal structures;
  • of straw;
  • mixed.

Key Features

Dimensions:

  • Height
  • The inner area (inside the building) – the total area of ??the premises.
  • Seismic resistance
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Energy Efficiency