Storage

Storage Spaces

StorageĀ – the room (and their complex) for storing wealth and providing warehousing services. In logistics warehouse serves as storage reserves of material resources necessary to dampen fluctuations in supply and demand, as well as the synchronization speed the flow of goods in the systems move from manufacturers to consumers or material flows in industrial production systems.

Variety stores

automated warehouse
By appointment the following types of stores:

  • Production – storage of raw materials, components, materials, shop warehouse of finished products, the factory warehouse.
  • Transit and transhipment – warehouses with railway stations, ports, river docks, airports, terminals avtogruzovyh serve for storage of goods during overload them from one vehicle to another.
  • Customs – warehouses to store goods awaiting clearance.
  • Premature delivery – storage areas, delivery of goods to which is possible only in certain periods of the year.
  • Seasonal storage – storage for seasonal items.
  • Reserve – to keep supplies in case of emergency.
  • Wholesale Distributors – warehouses that supply distribution networks.
  • Sales of general use – warehouses that serve all owners of the goods.
  • Retail – warehouse retailers.
  • Military – warehouses with a variety of content needed for the Armed Forces

On storage conditions distinguish general warehouses, tanks, boxes for hazardous substances, specialized warehouses, storage (vegetable store, fruit storage, refrigerated warehouses with machine-cooled ice for food storage, etc.). In warehouses create necessary conditions for storage, including physical and chemical properties of the product. In some cases, the warehouses have a capacity for packing, packaging, testing and other operations.

Warehouses in the channels promote products

In the enterprises participating systems of distribution warehouses are the major functional units. System of moving goods between manufacturers and consumers are divided into direct (manufacturer – dealer and large consumers), echelon (producer – distributor – dealers and large consumers) and flexible (echelon with the possibility of direct supplies from manufacturers to dealers and large consumers in special cases).
Echelon commodity distribution systems include three levels of storage:

  • Central or zonal warehouses of manufacturers, serving regional stores its system of moving goods in geographic or administrative regions.
  • Regional warehouses serving its dealers in the same region.

Dealer serving the wholesale and / or retail customers in the areas of consumer goods.
Zonal and regional warehouses call distributor (distribution), as they do not sell wholesale goods to final consumers, and relevant stores – a part of distribution systems.
Dealers (retail) stores sell goods to retail customers directly and through its sales agents, containing shops and other points of sale. Dealership stores also perform distribution functions, but small wholesale lots.
In relation to the scale of Russian central or zonal warehouses can be considered finished product warehouses manufacturers and wholesalers, importers, regional – warehouses of wholesale businesses serving one or more areas, dealer – warehouses within the distribution network of retail and wholesale businesses, serving customers in one or more consumption regions.
Tasks distribution warehouse – the organization to ensure the effective operation of the distribution network, performance criteria – meeting the demands on the range 90-95% (for warehouses authorized distributors), time of shipment during the day outside of the area for half a day within the area. Non-urgent shipment – for up to two days.

As warehouses are classified by:

  • Type and nature of the stored materials: universal and specialized.
  • Design type: closed, semi-closed, open, and special (eg, bunker construction, tanks)
  • The location and scale of the central, district, pritsehovye.
  • Degree of fire: fire-resistant, nonflammable, combustible.

Basic principles of warehousing services

On the whole complex of storage services is the following sequence:

  • unloading and loading of vehicles (carrying the so-called loading and unloading)
  • Acceptance of Goods (Acceptance received goods in quantity and in quality. Acceptance of goods – initial operation associated with the movement of goods in the warehouse and the emergence of a liability)
  • placement for storage (packing goods in racks, stacks)
  • picking of goods from storage (the selection of goods from storage (equipment), training for vacation: packaging, edging, marking, etc.)
  • picking and packing of goods
  • Vnutriskladskaya movement of goods