Building – ground construction works with facilities for living (housing) and (or) human activity, the location of production, storage, production or animal husbandry. The building includes network engineering support and systems (equipment) engineering and technical support.

The building can also be operated in the basement of the premises. Construction, which has no above-ground parts, not a building.
The building is one of the types of building structures. Construction – is the result of construction activities for the implementation of certain consumer functions. In the scientific literature often uses a combination of the words “building and building construction.” In this combination of “building construction” shall have the meaning as “other building structures that are not buildings,” for example, engineering structures (bridges, chimneys, towers, radio and television towers, etc.), underground structures (tunnels, Metro underground facilities, shelters, etc.), memorial monuments.

Split by appointment

By appointment of the building can be divided into:

  • residential – all buildings intended for use as dwellings (houses, hotels, hostels, guest houses residential buildings, recreation centers, etc.)
  • public (such as theaters, museums, shopping malls, train stations, etc.),
  • administrative – any office buildings, that is designed to house offices.


  • industrial (factories, plants)
  • auxiliary,
  • energy (power)
  • warehouse.

Agriculture (greenhouses, silos, livestock facilities, warehouses and workshops to / agricultural machinery)
These types of buildings are very different in their architectural and design the structure and appearance.
Each of these groups is divided by the degree of capital . Cultural and historical monuments should be preserved for centuries (theaters, palaces, underground, power …). Depend on it, and requirements for the construction and fire resistance, and other architectural requirements.

Office Buildings

Administrative buildings – structures, united by the common goal of creating architectural environments for offices (including offices for administrative personnel) of state and non-state (public) economic and other organizations and institutions. Usually planning cell with placing his study for one or both sides of the corridor. The ground floor entrance hall, cloakroom. Meeting rooms are located on the lower floors as separate volumes or on the top floor of the main volume. Are of great architectural and artistic and creative value for development of towns and villages. Placed on the main squares and streets, many of the centers of architectural ensembles.

Commercial buildings – used for business (sales, etc.). This category of the building can, in particular, include the following groups:

  • office building – in this case, the building to house offices of commercial organizations and institutions;
  • trade – buildings (malls, Megamall, pavilions) to accommodate retailers (shops, supermarkets, hypermarkets);
  • exhibition – buildings for exhibitions in the interests of commercial organizations, exhibitors and exhibition business to conduct, that is, the business of providing facilities for exhibitions;
  • Commercial production – buildings for commercial production (factories, plants), that is used in the production of commercial organizations for a particular product to sell.
  • auxiliary – building to house the various support services (such as garages for corporate vehicles), provide the basic activities of the organization that owns.

Commercial buildings often combine a variety of these functions. In particular, there is a lot of commercial and office buildings used to house both commercial enterprises and for offices (mainly front office).


Buildings used for the organization and distribution of production, divided into four subgroups:

  • Main – buildings that house the factory shop.
  • Energy – power thermal power plants (in particular CHP power plant, nuclear power plants, geothermal power plants), boilers, electrical and transformer stations, etc.
  • Transportation and warehousing – garages (depots), parking floor industrial transport, storage products and consumables (eg raw materials), fire station.
  • Auxiliary – administrative (office) premises, cabins, clinics, cafeterias, etc.


Residential buildings – used for housing (single or multifamily residential buildings). Can be both non-profit (in particular non-profit hostel and hotel at factories and schools, military barracks, housing (except for apartment buildings)) and commercial (eg: hotels, commercial hostels, apartment buildings).


  • storage buildings (warehouses);
  • academic buildings (eg buildings laboratories);
  • building educational (training) institutions;
  • buildings for cultural activities;
  • sports facilities;
  • public buildings;
  • building units and fixed military installations;
  • special buildings;

Historic buildings

  • locks;
  • palaces;
  • with historical and cultural value of religious buildings;